The road to LTE and 4G: How wireless technologies evolved

This chapter from 'Fundamentals of LTE' details how wireless technologies progressed from basic systems into advanced 4G wireless technologies like Long-Term Evolution (LTE).

The cover of the book 'Fundamentals of LTE' by Arunabha Ghosh, Jun Zhang, Jeffrey G. Andrews and Rias Muhamed, published by Prentice Hall. This chapter offers an overview of wireless technology evolution from its humble beginnings into today's state-of-the-art systems like Long-Term Evolution (LTE).Wireless technologies have come quite a long way since Ameritech first deployed AMPS in Chicago in 1983. In the span of three decades, mobile subscription rolls have swelled to include nearly 5 billion people around the world, demonstrating both a ravenous consumer appetite for constant connectivity and massive advances in the wireless technologies deployed to provide it.

To take the next step—providing true broadband access to wireless data applications for mobile users—many carriers are deploying Long-Term Evolution (LTE), a 4G wireless technology capable of delivering the type of rich broadband services and applications that users experience in their homes and offices. But how did we get here? How did 4G LTE come to be?

This chapter from Fundamentals of LTE offers an overview of wireless technology evolution, charting the development of mobile telecommunications systems from their humble beginnings into today's state-of-the-art setups. Authors Arunabha Ghosh, Jun Zhang, Jeffrey G. Andrews and Rias Muhamed detail the progress from 1G analog voice cellular offerings like AMPS, Extended TACS and Narrowband TACS, through 2G digital voice systems such as GSM, CDMA and TDMA, and 3G packet data systems like EV-DO, UMTS and HSPA, toward present-day wireless technologies like LTE, WiMAX and HSPA+.

In breaking down LTE fundamentals, the authors address the similarities and differences between LTE and its fellow 4G wireless systems, as well as how high-bandwidth applications like video, an avalanche of smart devices and dwindling wireless revenues are driving market demand for LTE. The chapter also includes an exploration of the key requirements that LTE had to meet, an overview of LTE network architecture (featuring a closer look at the Evolved Packet Core), information on LTE migration and deployment and more.

Download the PDF of "Evolution of Cellular Technologies," the opening chapter from Fundamentals of LTE, here.

Reproduced from the book Fundamentals of LTE by Arunabha Ghosh, Jun Zhang, Jeffrey G. Andrews and Rias Muhamed (ISBN-10: 0137033117; ISBN-13: 9780137033119). Copyright 2010, Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. For more information about this and other similar titles, visit Pearson Higher Ed.


About the book:

In Fundamentals of LTE, authors Arunabha Ghosh, Jun Zhang, Jeffrey G. Andrews and Rias Muhamed, four leading academic and industry experts, explain the technical foundations of LTE and provide a comprehensive overview of the 4G wireless technology's standards, offering a complete framework for understanding and evaluating LTE.

Check out Fundamentals of LTE to read more about the following:

  • Wireless evolution—A technology's history: technical advances, market drivers, and foundational networking and communications technologies.
  • Multicarrier modulation theory and practice: OFDM system design, peak-to-average power ratios and SC-FDE solutions.
  • Frequency Domain Multiple Access: OFDMA downlinks, SC-FDMA uplinks, resource allocation and LTE-specific implementation.
  • Multiple antenna techniques and tradeoffs: spatial diversity, interference cancellation, spatial multiplexing and multiuser/networked MIMO.
  • LTE standard overview: air interface protocol, channel structure and physical layers.
  • Downlink and uplink transport channel processing: channel encoding, modulation mapping, Hybrid ARQ, multiantenna processing and more.
  • Physical/MAC layer procedures and scheduling: channel-aware scheduling, closed/open-loop multiantenna processing and more.
  • Packet flow, radio resource and mobility management: RLC, PDCP, RRM and LTE radio access network mobility/handoff procedures.
This was first published in April 2011

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